Sunday, August 30, 2009

Biological Control of fungus in Plants

Trichoderma viride or Trichoderma harzianum that can be used for control of a number of soil-borne fungal pathogens causing diseases in crops such as root,rhyzome, stem, foot and collar rot, damping off and rootknot nematode.

On application of Trichoderma, it multiply and form a protective shield around the rootsystem of plants and prevents attack by plant pathogenic fungi. Trichoderma also suppresses growth of pathogens by micoparasitism and by secreting toxic metabolites.

Trichoderma has better and longer efficacy than traditional fungicides. Also, unlike other fungicides, it does not cause development of resistance in plants. There are no phytotoxic effects and yield is increased.

Trichoderma viride (TV) & Trichoderma harzianum (TH) for Control of Soil-borne Fungal Diseases

Recommendation : Trichoderma can be used for coating seeds just before sowing, for nursery bed treatment, dipping cuttings or seedlings before transplantation and soil treatment in case of seasonal crops.Trichoderma can also be used for soil application after multiplying on farm yard manure (FYM) and by soil drenching in case of perennial crops.

For direct field application, mix 1-2 Kg Trichoderma/ 100 Kg in moist and well-decomposed FYM and keep for 10-15 days under a polythene cover in the shade.

Turn over the mixture every 3 days to enable uniform multiplication of Trichoderma in FYM. Broadcast the fortified FYM over 1 acre before sowing. Maintain optimum soil moisture conditions after application for best results.

Lures available in the markets for the control of Various Pests are

• Helicoverpa armigera (American Bollworm)

• Spodoptera litura (Tobacco Caterpillar)

• Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink Bollworm)

• Earias vitella (Spotted Bollworm)

• Earias insulana (Spiny Bollworm)

• Plutella xylostella (Diamond Back Moth)

• Chilo infuscatellus (Sugarcane Early Shoot Borer)

• Chilo sacchariphagus (Sugarcane Internode Borer)

• Scirpophaga excerptalis (Sugarcane Top Borer)

• Scirpophaga incertulas (Paddy Yellow Stem Borer)

• Leucinodes orbonalis (Brinjal Fruit & Shoot Borer)

• Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fly)

• Bactrocera dorsalis (Fruit Fly)

• Rhyncophorus ferrugineus (Red Palm Weevil)

Monitoring : Installation of pheromone traps with suitable lures @ 2-3 per acre can provide information on pest incidence and intensity in fields. based on the number of males caught, timing and frequency of control measures can be determined.

(Compiled by Harsh Saxena)

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